Populisme di Indonesia Kontemporer: Transformasi Persaingan Populisme dan Konsekuensinya dalam Dinamika Kontestasi Politik Menjelang Pemilu 2019

Defbry Margiansyah



The rise of populism is a contemporary global phenomenon occurred in many part of the world, including Indonesia. The rising populism in the country has been epitomized by the emergence of two populist candidates, Jokowi and Prabowo, in the 2014 presidential election and recurring in the 2019 simultaneous election, which brings about new complexities in the dynamics of contemporary political contestation. The uniqueness of such competing populist politics is that both exploit the rhetoric of nationalism and social justice combined with the traits of respective candidates, in contrast to the conventional pattern of populists in other nations. This article attempts to analyze the transformation of competing populisms in two different elections and discusses its consequences to electoral politics, including the elaboration on populist’s working pattern in contestation processes and factors underlying the return of populism in Indonesia’s politics. Employing concept of populism in eclectic way and elite adjustment thesis, this paper demonstrates how populist politics is only instrumented as a vehicle of entrenched elite and oligarchic interests by pragmatically exploiting various aspects ranging from primordial identity, clientalistic relations, achievements and personalities of each candidates, instead of offering greater prospects for substantially political transformation and democratic deepening for the years to come.

Keywords: Populism, Indonesia’s Election, Elite Adjusment, Identity Politics, Oligarchy, Democracy

Full Text:



Aspinall, Edward, and Ward Berenschot. Democracy For Sale: Pemilu, Klientelisme, dan Negara di Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2019.

Daigle, Delton T, Joséphine Neulen, Austin Hofeman, and Springer International Publishing AG. Populism, Nativism, and Economic Uncertainty: Playing the Blame Game in the 2017 British, French, and German Elections, 2019.

Evans, Jocelyn A. J. Voters and Voting: An Introduction. First edition. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2004.

Gherghina, Sergiu, Sergiu MiÅŸcoiu, and Sorina Soare. Contemporary Populism: A Controversial Concept and Its Diverse Forms. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013.

Hadiz, Vedi R. Islamic Populism in Indonesia and the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2016.

———. Localising Power in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia: A Southeast Asia Perspective. 1st edition. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2010.

Laclau, Ernesto. On Populist Reason. London; New York: Verso, 2005.

Mudde, Cas. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. 1st edition. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Mudde, Cas, and Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser. Populism: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd ed. edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Taggart, Paul A. Populism. Open University Press, 2000.

Aspinall, Edward. “Oligarchic Populism: Prabowo Subianto’s Challenge to Indonesian Democracy.†Indonesia 99, no. 1 (May 29, 2015): 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1353/ind.2015.0002.

Canovan, Margaret. “Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy.†Political Studies 47, no. 1 (March 1999): 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00184.

Gagnon, Jean-Paul, Emily Beausoleil, Kyong-Min Son, Cleve Arguelles, Pierrick Chalaye, and Callum N. Johnston. “What Is Populism? Who Is the Populist?: A State of the Field Review (2008-2018).†Democratic Theory 5, no. 2 (December 1, 2018): vi – xxvi. https://doi.org/10.3167/dt.2018.050201.

Gueorguiev, Dimitar, Kai Ostwald, and Paul Schuler. “Rematch: Islamic Politics, Mobilisation, and the Indonesian Presidential Election.†Political Science 0, no. 0 (March 22, 2019): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/00323187.2019.1584733.

Hadiz, Vedi R, and Richard Robison. “Competing Populisms in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia.†International Political Science Review 38, no. 4 (September 1, 2017): 488–502. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512117697475.

Inglehart, Ronald F., and Pippa Norris. “Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash.†SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, July 29, 2016. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2818659.

Luebke, Christian von. “The Politics of Reform: Political Scandals, Elite Resistance, and Presidential Leadership in Indonesia.†Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 29, no. 1 (March 1, 2010): 79–94. https://doi.org/10.1177/186810341002900104.

McDonnell, Duncan, and Luis Cabrera. “The Right-Wing Populism of India’s Bharatiya Janata Party (and Why Comparativists Should Care).†Democratization 26, no. 3 (April 3, 2019): 484–501. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2018.1551885.

Mietzner, Marcus. “Reinventing Asian Populism: Jokowi’s Rise, Democracy, and Political Contestation in Indonesia.†East-West Center, 2015. JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep06525.

Mudde, Cas. “The Populist Zeitgeist.†Government and Opposition 39, no. 4 (September 2004): 542–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x.

Muhtadi, Burhanuddin. “Jokowi’s First Year: A Weak President Caught between Reform and Oligarchic Politics.†Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 51, no. 3 (September 2, 2015): 349–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2015.1110684.

Noor, Firman. “Fenomena Post Democracy Party Di Indonesia: Kajian Atas Latar Belakang, Karakteristik Dan Dampaknya.†Jurnal Penelitian Politik 14, no. 2 (December 29, 2017): 109–26. https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v14i2.724.

———. “Pilkada, Peran Partai Dan Konstelasi Pragmatis: Kajian Atas Pilgub Banten, DKI Jakarta, Jateng Dan Jatim Tahun 2017-2018.†Jurnal Penelitian Politik 15, no. 2 (December 31, 2018): 179–96. https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v15i2.759.

Nurhasim, Moch. “Koalisi Nano-Nano Pilkada 2018: Sebuah Analisis.†Jurnal Penelitian Politik 15, no. 2 (December 31, 2018): 129–42. https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v15i2.760.

Power, Thomas P. “Jokowi’s Authoritarian Turn and Indonesia’s Democratic Decline.†Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 54, no. 3 (September 2, 2018): 307–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2018.1549918.

Rais, Ahmad Imam Mujadid, and Zainal Abidin Bagir. “Setelah ‘Bela Islam’: Gerakan Sosial Islam, Demokratisasi, dan Keadilan Sosial: Suatu Pengantar.†Maarif Institute 11, no. 2 (Desember 2016): 4–14.

Sil, Rudra, and Peter J. Katzenstein. “Analytic Eclecticism in the Study of World Politics: Reconfiguring Problems and Mechanisms across Research Traditions.†Perspectives on Politics 8, no. 2 (2010): 411–31. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25698610.

Sweinstani, Mouliza K.D, and Rury Uswatun Hasanah. “Integrasi Nasional Dan Eksklusionarisme Identitas Dalam Pilkada 2017: Studi Kasus Pilkada Maluku Utara, DKI Jakarta, Dan Kalimantan Barat.†Jurnal Bawaslu 3, no. 2 (2017): 185–98.

Ziv, Daniel. “Populist Perceptions and Perceptions of Populism in Indonesia: The Case of Megawati Soekarnoputri.†South East Asia Research 9, no. 1 (March 2001): 73–88. https://doi.org/10.5367/000000001101297324.


  • There are currently no refbacks.