PROTES, PANDEMI, DAN TRANSISI KEKUASAAN: PROSPEK DEMOKRASI AMERIKA LATIN PASCA-PANDEMI COVID-19

Arrizal Anugerah Jaknanihan

Abstract

Amerika Latin menghadapi gelombang demonstrasi hampir di seluruh kawasan sejak kuartal akhir 2019. Akan tetapi, pandemi Covid-19 secara efektif meredakan arus demonstrasi yang sebelumnya diprediksi akan memuncak pada 2020. Pandemi juga membuat transisi kekuasaan melalui pemilihan umum menjadi terhambat. Sebagai konsekuensi, Amerika Latin menghadapi risiko terjadinya democratic backsliding akibat pelemahan pada dua elemen demokrasi utama, yaitu pemilihan umum dan mobilisasi sipil. Meski demikian, perkembangan selanjutnya justru memberikan peluang bagi konsolidasi demokrasi di kawasan. Mekanisme check-and-balance menunjukkan ketahanannya dan gerakan sipil muncul tatkala pandemi tidak dapat ditangani secara efektif di berbagai negara. Dengan fokus pada gerakan protes dan pemilihan umum, artikel ini berupaya untuk menganalisis prospek demokrasi Amerika Latin setelah pandemi Covid-19. Artikel ini menggunakan dua konsep, yaitu resource mobilization theory dan electoral-cycle. Berbeda dengan yang diprediksi pada masa awal pandemi, artikel berikut menemukan bahwa pandemi Covid-19 tidak mendorong democratic backsliding di Amerika Latin secara umum; mekanisme check-and-balance pemerintahan menunjukkan resiliensinya dan gerakan sipil tetap dapat berlangsung akibat struktur mobilisasi yang dibentuk oleh pandemi.

 

Kata Kunci : Amerika Latin, Covid-19, democratic backsliding, pemilihan umum, protes

Keywords

Amerika Latin; COVID-19; democratic backsliding; pemilihan umum; protes

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